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The people who first lived in North America, including the Inuit and First
Nations peoples. Europeans called them "Indians" at first because
they had darker skin than the Europeans, and because the Europeans thought
had reached India.
A Native nation living in the thick forest areas on either side of the
upper Ottawa River in Canada. A small tribe; it was almost completely
wiped out by the Iroquois and by European diseases. They lived in villages
and practiced farming.
A distant relation in someone's family. For example, a great, great, great,
Study of the remains of past peoples, such as pottery, buildings and tools.
The nickname of the men who worked for Hudson's Bay Company.
To give money or something else to someone so that they do something,
A small boat usually made of birch bark used for traveling on lakes and
A process for making fur more suitable for making felt. It was invented
in England between 1720 and 1740, and was for a long time a very valuable
secret. It used a chemical mixture including mercuric oxide (a very poisonous
acid) to make the hairs rougher so they could stick together better. It
was called carroting because it turned the tips of the fur orange.
Born 1814, died on 1873. Cartier was a polician and one of the most important
Fathers of Confederation. A friend and ally of Sir John A. Macdonald,
he was very important in convincing French Canadians to accept Confederation.
Born about 1491, died 1557. An explorer who went to Canada three times,
in 1534, 1535 and 1541. He gave Canada its name, after he mistook the
Mohawk word for village (kana:ta') as the name of the whole land.
II, King of England
Born 1630, died 1685. King from 1660 to 1685
A document, usually given by a king or queen, that gives a certain group
possessions or privileges. Hudson's Bay Company Charter was granted
on May 2 1670, by English King Charles II. It gave Hudson's Bay Company
all trading rights in the territory that had rivers flowing into Hudson
Commander of a trading post.
A once-large Native nation that lived in what is now northern Saskatchewan
and Manitoba, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
A group of people who move to a new place or country to start farms and
towns, but still follow the laws of the old country.
Protection of something valuable. It could be animals, electricity, or
The capital of the Byzantine Empire from AD 330 to 1453, when it was captured
by the Ottomans. For most of this period it was the major center of learning
and culture in Christian Europe. It is now known as Istanbul, and is the
capital of Turkey.
used for women that men lived with while in Forts or in the Fur Country.
Some were almost slaves, but other men fell in love and married their
A community of women who live a lifestyle of religious worship.
(French for "runner of the woods") a fur trader who went into
the woods to find fur and trade fur with First Nations.
The king's ministers and advisors.
A major First Nations people that spread from Hudson Bay to Lake Athabaska
in Alberta. There are three kinds of Cree: Woodland Cree, Swampy Cree,
and Plains Cree.
A system of money.
Born about 1550, died 1605. John Davis (also spelled Davys) was a true
explorer, combining great skill in navigation with patience and careful
work. Three times, he tried to find the Northwest Passage. Though he failed,
he went farther north than any explorer had gone before and mapped huge
areas. This made it possible for later explorers to go further. He also
invented the Davis Quadrant, a tool used for measuring the position of
a ship on the Earth.
The agreement that Hudson's Bay Company signed to transfer nearly
all its land to the British Crown which, in turn, transferred it to the
newly formed Dominion of Canada in 1870.
To come from somebody or something. For example, you are a descendent
of your grandmother.
A cloth made from animal hair by pressing, heating, or treating the hair
The name for all the tribes of Aboriginal people who lived in North America
before the Europeans came, except the Inuit. Europeans called them "Indians"
at first because the Europeans thought had reached India.
Explorer and pirate born 1535 or 1539, died 1594. Martin Frobisher was
the first European to sail into what later became known as Hudson Strait.
In his time, he was most famous as a pirate and privateer (a pirate with
a license from the king to attack ships from other countries).
Born 1622, died 1698. Governor of New France 1672 to 1682 and 1689 to
A gardening or farming tool with a long handle and a flat blade to turn
the soil or pull up weeds.
Born about 1575, died 1611. Henry Hudson made four journeys that are recorded
in the history books, and is credited as the European discoverer of Hudson
Bay. He is also remembered for the sad end of his last voyage. Most of
his crew mutinied against him, leaving Hudson, his son and several other
crewmembers to die in the bay that is now named after him.
A First Nations people that lived along the St. Lawrence River and Great
Lakes area. By the middle of the seventeenth century, they had been defeated
by the Iroquois, and scattered.
A people who live in the north of Canada and Greenland. Traditionally,
they lived from animals and fish. They arrived in North America much later
than the other First Nations. When there is only one person, she or he
is called an Inuk.
A powerful group of Native nations in the northeast of North America,
which came to include the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and
Tuscarora. The Iroquois Confederacy was most powerful around 1680. After
that, war and European diseases gradually weakened them.
A small strip of land that joined North America and Asia in the last ice
age, 80 000 to 12 000 years ago. Huge sheets of ice built up in the ice
ages, and covered the earth. With so much of Earth's water frozen on land,
the sea levels fell by about 130 metres. In the last, they went down by
about 130 metres. This uncover land - a land bridge. The ancestors of
Canada's First Nations peoples probably crossed this land to come to North
A beaver pelt in prime condition. It was the unit of exchange - all goods
were compared in value to made beaver.
A type of soldier that fights on ships or from ships.
Someone who buys and sells goods (for example: food, clothing, furs, etc.).
A person of both French and First Nations heritage. There were many French
fur traders who married First Nations women and had families. Their children,
and those that came afterward, came to see themselves as a separate people
- the Métis. The term now also includes people not of French ancestry.
A place people live who travel in order to persuade others to join their
religion. A missionary is someone who travels to persuade others to join
Whenever one person or company is the only one buying or selling a certain
kind of product in a certain place.
A type of gun used hundreds of years ago.
A First Nations people living in the Great Lakes region.
The route through the islands north of Canada that ships can pass through
from east to west or back again. In the past, many explorers tried to
find this passage in the hopes that it would be a useful shortcut to Asia.
They failed because of the ice until Roald Amundsen finally made it through
in one try in 1906. By then, it was no longer as important.
A person working for the North West Company.
Part of the Ojibway Nation. The Odawa lived mainly on Manitoulin Island
in the northern Lake Huron, Georgian Bay area.
Group formed in order to do business or carry out some common purpose.
The skin of an animal with the fur still on it.
Dried and powdered meat, usually buffalo, that has been mixed with an
equal amount of animal fat. Sometimes berries or other items were added.
Pemmican was stored and carried in leather bags and was the perfect food
for fur traders to carry on long voyages because it did not spoil. Developed
by the Chipewyans, Peter Pond introduced it to HBC in 1779.
Any First Nations people who lived on the Great Plains of north America.
The Plains area was the grasslands (prairies) from central Canada - Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta - south to Mexico and from the Midwest westward
to the Rocky Mountains. Most Plains Nations were buffalo hunters, though
not all. Some Plains Nations include the Blackfoot, the Mandan, the Hidatsa,
the Sioux, the Cheyenne, the Arapaho, the Shoshone and the Comanche.
To carry a canoe or other boat from one lake or river to another or around
rapids or water falls.
Level or hilly grassland that is found in the centre of North America.
In Canada, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta contain large areas of prairie
that once had millions of buffalo.
To make money, or gain in some other way, from a business. A business
that makes a lot of money is profitable.
Something that is useful to people. It could include, fur, metals (like
gold or iron), oil, and many other natural things and man-made things,
and even things like time.
Born 1844, died 1885. Leader of the Métis and the Métis
rebellions of 1869 and 1884. He is regarded as the father of Manitoba.
Rupert's Land was the name given to the land draining into Hudson Bay,
a huge area of northern and western Canada granted to Hudson's Bay
Company in 1670. It was named for Prince Rupert, the company's first governor.
A disease caused by a lack of vitamin C, which is most often found in
fruits and vegetables. It usually happened in winter or on long sea voyages.
It is very unusual now.
A person who owned a seigneury, which was a large area of land given to
someone by the King of France.
A war from 1756 to 1763. Although most of the fighting took place in Europe
(and involved many European countries) fighting between France and Britain
in North America decided who would control the northern half of the continent.
At first, the French were more successful. In 1759, though, the British
captured Quebec City by defeating the French on the Plains of Abraham.
The Treaty of Paris in 1763 ended the war and gave Britain control of
all French territories in North America except the islands of Saint-Pierre
and Miquelon near Newfoundland.
A group of First Nations peoples living on the northern Great Plains of
North America. The Plains area was the grasslands (prairies) from central
Canada - Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta - south to Mexico and from
the Midwest westward to the Rocky Mountains.
To tease in a hurtful way.
Ideas to explain something.
A person, European or Aborigianal, who transported furs to and from fur
posts. The word is sometimes used for coureurs de bois.
A part of the Huron Nation, originally in the Georgian Bay area. It was
scattered by 1750, decimated by disease and war.