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Ontarians are jealously proud of their local and family history, but this history remains largely inaccessible to scholar and folklorist alike, hoarded in small libraries and archives from one corner of the province to the other.
This is why Canadiana.org is substantially bolstered collection efforts in this area, aiming to provide and enhance access to materials chronicling the rich historical texture of pioneering, trade, culture and local government in Upper Canada and early Ontario. (Browse all titles.)
Upper Canada, founded by waves of Loyalist settlers, was destined for a tumultuous 19th century: an age of canals and railroads, reformers and reactionaries, Orangemen and Fenians, massive fortunes and spectacular financial crashes. At the dawn of this century, the predominantly rural settlements of Upper Canada hugged the southern fringe of the Canadian Shield along a network of dirt paths carved through wilderness by Governor Simcoe's redcoats. Towards its end, the province was criss-crossed by industry, mining, and rail transport; hydroelectricity lit up Ottawa in the 1880s and other cities soon after; Windsor was growing into an automobile import and manufacturing hub; and mineral wealth brought prosperity and settlers to North Bay and Sault St. Marie. When the Bogart, Brock, and O'Connor children took their first steps, York was an unremarkable garrison town; when they settled into retirement, Toronto had emerged as a commercial and banking centre rivalling Montreal in size, wealth, and power.
The local and family histories in this collection offer unparalleled access to this bustling yet austere Victorian world, caught between innovation and tradition—a world of waxed mustaches and agricultural fairs, of Orange Order parades and Fenian panics, of militia marching and countermarching for Queen and Country, bayonets (or broomsticks) fixed against the twin evils of rebellion and republicanism. Early Ontarians were intensely political people—sometimes to a fault—debating education, agriculture, religion, temperance, and increasingly, labour. Tories tussled with reformers, carrying sectarian grudges like comfortable blankets, while political elites drawn from law, medicine and business gradually clawed power away from the old colonial cliques.
Midway through the century, Queen's Park abolished the last of the old provincial districts, enshrining Ontario's counties as fully functional units of government. In many respects, the history of early Ontario is the history of these counties: in Elgin, Wellington and Brant counties, despotic landholders tried and failed to duplicate the settled life of the English gentry, sitting on vast acreages near Galt where a few years later the ground would reverberate to the thrum of industrial machinery. In Eastern Ontario, migrating along the St. Lawrence Valley, French Canadians founded Saint-Jacques d'Embrun in the fertile lands of Prescott and Russell. Their neighbours in Dundas County grew pears and apples, while the more temperate Niagara Peninsula supported peaches, vineyards, and, by the 1860s, cheese and dairy. In the forested hills and bleak marshes of Renfrew and Carleton counties, the timber boom of the 1830s birthed Pembroke as well as a grim lumber city named Bytown, the future capital of Canada.
The urban environment and its evolution is a topic of growing interest in a wide range of fields, and a particular area of strength for this project. In the leafy suburbs of Hamilton, prosperous middle classes produced a flourishing architecture. Elsewhere, mill hands and factory workers experienced a very different urban life, one of horseracing in the streets, brawls and lawlessness, filth and cholera, raging fires and exploding sewers—a Victorian pauperism which has left few physical traces, laid to rest beneath landscaped boulevards and modern real-estate developments.
Dr. A.B. Cecil Dando, Sault Ste. Marie
Incorporating elements of oral history and early heritage photography, the titles in this collection shine a light on particular places and people, helping researchers make effective connections with the lives and experiences of previous generations. Future instalments will expand the scope of the project into Quebec, the Maritimes, and Western Canada.
Early History of St. Mark's (Niagara, 1909)
Historic Buildings (Niagara Historical Society, 1911)
Pioneer Papers (Simcoe County Pioneer and Historical Society, Barrie, 1910)
List of Subscribers to the Missionary and Other Extra Parochial Funds (Anglican Diocese of Ottawa, 1916)
Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario (1908)
Historical Sketch and Calendar of Pupils, 1855-1904 (Berlin Collegiate and Technical Institute, Kitchener, 1904)
The History and Family of Cornelius Moore (Welland, 1920)
The Nott Family Record (Toronto, 1906)
Genealogy of the Wright Family (Sarnia, c. 1928)
Ancestors and Descendents of Richard Griffin, of Smithville (Hamilton, 1924)