The period from 1759 until 1763 was one of occupation by the British
army and martial law for the inhabitants of New France. Important
precedents were set with implications for the shaping of the Canadian
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On September 13, 1759, a British army under Major-General
James Wolfe defeated an army of French regular troops and Canadian
militia on the Plains of Abraham outside the walls of Québec.
Then on September 8, 1760, three British armies under General
Jeffery Amherst took control of Montreal and New France.
During the period after the surrenders at Québec and Montreal
until the Treaty
of Paris, 1763, martial law prevailed in conquered New
Murray was military governor and military courts administered
justice. The articles of capitulation of Québec and especially
of Montreal played a role in how the Canadians were ruled.
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