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Themes:
Constitutional History
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Aboriginals
1608 - 1759
1749 - 1759
1759 - 1763
1763 - 1774
1774 - 1791
1791 - 1837 (1)
1791 - 1837 (2)
1837 - 1839
1839 - 1850
1850 - 1867
1867 - 1931 (1)
1867 - 1931 (2)
1931 - 1982
1982 - 2002
Documents

Aboriginals: Treaties & Relations
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Pionniers et Immigrants
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Painting: A View of the Launching Place Above the Town of Québec, Describing the Assault of the Enemy, 13 September, 1759 - NAC/ANC C-002736
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1759 - 1763: Martial Law

The period from 1759 until 1763 was one of occupation by the British army and martial law for the inhabitants of New France. Important precedents were set with implications for the shaping of the Canadian Constitution.

Topics in this section:

The Conquest
Martial Law
Other Interesting or Important Documents

The Conquest
On September 13, 1759, a British army under Major-General James Wolfe defeated an army of French regular troops and Canadian militia on the Plains of Abraham outside the walls of Québec. Then on September 8, 1760, three British armies under General Jeffery Amherst took control of Montreal and New France.

Painting: The Death of Wolfe - NAC/ANC C-042249
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Martial Law
During the period after the surrenders at Québec and Montreal until the Treaty of Paris, 1763, martial law prevailed in conquered New France. General Murray was military governor and military courts administered justice. The articles of capitulation of Québec and especially of Montreal played a role in how the Canadians were ruled.

Map of New France at the time of the Conquest, 1759
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Articles of Capitulation, Québec, Sept. 18, 1759 (bilingual)

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Articles of Capitulation, Montreal, Sept. 8, 1760 (bilingual)

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Did you know?

General James Murray was military governor of New France from 1760 to 1763. After the Treaty of Paris, 1763, he became the first civil governor of Québec from 1763 to 1766.

Other Interesting or Important Documents

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