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Treaties and Relations
A test using the Canada in the Making
This test was developed for use with the Canada's Constitutional history
portion of the Canada in the Making Web site.
Fill in the
Circle the correct response:
1. Before the arrival
of Europeans, Aboriginal peoples across what is now Canada made agreements between
a. the Covenant Chain.
d. oral treaties.
2. The Great Peace of 1701
was made between
a. Britain and France.
b. France and the
c. Britain and the Iroquois Confederacy.
Netherlands and the Iroquois Confederacy.
3. Between 1725 and
1779, colonial governments in what is now New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the northeastern
United States signed peace agreements with Aboriginal nations in those areas.
These agreements were known as
a. the Covenant Chain.
b. the Great Law of Peace of the People.
c. the Peace and Friendship Treaties.
d. none of the above.
4. This 1763 document made it illegal
for private individuals to make treaties with Aboriginal peoples, as any future
negotiation would be done in public by British representatives.
a. The Royal Proclamation.
b. The Québec Act.
c. The Constitutional Act.
d. The Great Law of Peace of the People.
5. American revolutionaries referred to the Québec
Act as one of the
a. Irresponsible Acts.
c. Unforgivable Acts.
d. Just Acts.
the American revolution, this Mohawk chief remained staunchly loyal of the British:
a. Joseph Brant
7. During the signing of the Upper Canada treaties
from 1764-1836, it was common for British officials to
ask Aboriginal leaders to sign blank treaties.
b. make promises but not put
them on the treaty.
c. ask Aboriginals to surrender land in exchange for money
d. do all of the above.
8. This treaty between
the United States and Britain, made after the American Revolution, allowed Aboriginals
to cross the border freely.
a. The Métis Treaty.
b. The Niagara Treaty.
c. The Jay Treaty.
d. The Selkirk
9. The governor general responsible for rescinding
the Niagara Treaty felt that Aboriginal peoples would not integrate into white
society. His name was
a. Georges Vanier.
b. Guy Carleton.
c. Sir Francis Bond Head.
d. Charles Metcalfe.
Confederation, the responsibility for signing treaties with Aboriginal peoples
a. the provincial governments.
b. the federal government.
c. the governor general.
d. municipal officials.
series of treaties were signed with Aboriginal peoples on the Prairies and in
the North. They were the
a. Williams Treaties.
and Friendship Treaties.
c. Numbered Treaties.
d. none of the above.
Which of the following was considered an Indian under the Indian Act, 1876?
a. A white man married to an Aboriginal woman.
b. A white woman married
to an Indian man.
c. A Métis man.
d. Answers b and c.
Chief Poundmaker signed Treaty Number Six because
a. the government
threatened to use the army to force his nation onto a reserve.
b. the buffalo
were almost extinct, leaving his people without food.
c. his nation was promised
d. the United States was threatening to occupy his nation's
14. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century,
the Canadian government banned
b. Sun Dances.
d. all of the above.
15. The Constitution
Act, 1982, was important because it
a. gave Aboriginal
peoples the right to vote.
b. gave Aboriginal peoples the right to self-government.
c. guaranteed the rights and freedoms of all Aboriginals.
d. recognized Aboriginal
governments as a third level of government, after the federal and provincial governments.
16. Aboriginal people
did not have ways of making treaties before meeting Europeans.
17. British officials
sometimes made oral promises to Aboriginal leaders, and then not include them
in the written treaties.
18. The Selkirk Treaty of 1817 was signed by the Cree, Chippewayan and
19. The Numbered Treaties are also known as the Land Cession Treaties.
20. The money and supplies
given to Aboriginal people got worse with each Numbered Treaty.
21. After 1876, Aboriginals
were finally allowed to have liquor on reserve land.
22. The North West Rebellion
was fought mainly over land rights
23. Residential schools improved the lives of many Aboriginals by removing
them from impoverished reserves.
24. In 1969, Prime Minister Trudeau believed that Canada should reopen negotiations
to settle outstanding land claim with Aboriginal peoples.
25. Aboriginal peoples
strongly supported the Meech Lake Accord as they had been included in the negotiations.
Fill in the Blanks
26. Treaty Number Six contained a provision which allowed for
a ________________________ to be kept in the home of an Indian agent for the use
and benefit of the Aboriginal people in the area.
27. In the late nineteenth
and early twentieth centuries, the policy of the Canadian government toward aboriginal
peoples was enfranchisement and _______________________.
peoples answered the government's 1969 White Paper on Aboriginal policy with their
own paper, called the ____________________.
29. A land claims agreement
in the 1990s led to the creation of __________________ Territory.
the Selkirk Treaty was negotiated, the ________________ were not included.
Aboriginals who sided with Britain during the American Revolution were called
32. "Six Nations" was a synonym for the
33. The Shawnee war chief, _____________________,
provided much leadership to Aboriginal peoples loyal to the British during the
War of 1812.
34. "First Nations" refers to all the indigenous
people in North America except _________________.
35. In 1869, the ____________________________
sold the Selkirk Treaty lands to the government of Canada.
the document with the year:
Peace and Friendship Treaties
British North America Act
Indian Act (first)
Nunavut Land Claims Agreement
two (2) of the following questions in less than ten lines (100 words).
In the past - and still, some argue, in the present - Europeans and Aboriginal
peoples had different understandings of land ownership. Explain.
is the Royal Proclamation, 1763 considered a very important document for
48. In what ways was the Iroquois Confederacy caught
between sides before and during the American Revolution, and why did some choose
to stay loyal to the British?
49. Bill C-31 in 1985 amended the Indian
Act, 1876 in important ways for Aboriginal peoples. Identify one way it changed
and briefly explain the effects of the change.
50. Residential schools represented
an effort of the federal government to "improve" Aboriginal peoples,
yet are now widely regarded as failures. Give three reasons why they failed.
Answer one of the
following essay questions.
51. Identify the roots behind one of the following
documents and the significant provisions and consequences of the document for
Aboriginals in Canada:
Indian Act, 1876
The Numbered Treaties
The Williams Treaties
Constitution Act, 1982
52. The Numbered Treaties were negotiated with both sides
hoping to gain something. Identify what each side (i.e.: the federal government
and Aboriginal peoples) hoped to gain, what they did receive, and how this met
or did not meet their expectations.
53. The terms of treaties negotiated
often reflected the power relationship between Europeans and Aboriginal peoples.
Explain this argument, using examples.
54. The Riel Rebellions were sparked
by similar demands, but ended very differently. Explain what the root causes of
the rebellions were, and why they ended differently.
55. The Aboriginal
Rights movement has gained strength since the beginning of the twentieth century.
Describe three or four major events in this evolution, explaining the consequences
of each event.