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Themes:
Constitutional History
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Aboriginals: Treaties & Relations
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Different Perspectives: The Seven Oaks Incident

Ontario Curriculum Expectations

Grade 8 History
Grade 12 Canada: History, Identity, and Culture
Grade 12 World History: The West and the World
Grade 12 World History: The West and the World

Expectations (Grade 8 Social Studies)
History: The Development of Western Canada

Overall Expectations
By the end of Grade 8, students will:

  • use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about conflicts and changes that occurred during the development of western Canada;

Specific Expectations
Knowledge and Understanding
By the end of Grade 8, students will:

  • describe the everyday life of various groups (e.g., First Nation peoples, Métis, Europeans) in western Canada in the late nineteenth century;

  • explain the factors that led to the settlement of the Canadian west (e.g., federal government policy of opening up the prairies for European settlement, protective tariffs, railroad construction);

Developing Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills
By the end of Grade 8, students will:

  • formulate questions to guide research on issues and problems (e.g., Why did Big Bear receive the treatment he did from Canada's legal system?);

  • use a variety of primary and secondary sources to locate relevant information about the building of the railway, the settling of the land, and social and cultural life in the developing west (e.g., primary sources: photographs of Chinese labourers and prairie sodbusters, the poetry of Robert W. Service; secondary sources: maps, illustrations, print materials, videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites);

  • analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information (e.g., trends in immigration, the impact of Treaties 1 to 8);

  • describe and analyse conflicting points of view about a historical event (e.g., the Pacific Scandal, the hanging of Louis Riel, the imprisonment of Big Bear);

  • communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and audiences, using media works, political cartoons, oral presentations, written notes and reports, drawings, tables, charts, and graphs (e.g., create diary entries depicting Louis Riel as a hero or a traitor);

  • use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., treaties, Métis, Rupert's Land, provisional government, prospector, panning for gold, staking a claim) to describe their inquiries and observations.

Expectations for Canada: History, Identity, and Culture
(Grade 12, University Preparation)
Communities: Local, National, and Global

Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe the main features of life in selected Aboriginal societies in Canada prior to contact with Europeans and how they have changed over time;

  • assess the significance of successive waves of immigration in the development of regional, provincial, and national identities in Canada.

Specific Expectations
Aboriginal Peoples
By the end of this course, students will:

  • analyse the impact of European contact on the lives of Aboriginal peoples and evaluate the responses of Aboriginal peoples (e.g., spread of disease; territorial relocation; introduction of new weapons and trade goods; rebellions of Pontiac and Tecumseh, and at Oka; consequences of the Royal Proclamation of 1763; political agitation for self-government);

Methods of Historical Inquiry
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of historians’ methods of locating, gathering, and organizing research materials;

  • critically analyse interpretations related to Canadian history, culture, and identity;

  • communicate opinions and ideas based on effective research clearly and concisely;

  • demonstrate an ability to think creatively, manage time efficiently, and work effectively in independent and collaborative study.

Specific Expectations
Research
By the end of this course, students will:

  • formulate questions for research that lead to a more profound understanding of the evolution of Canadian culture, drawing on examples from Canadian history;

  • conduct organized research, using a variety of information sources (e.g., primary and secondary sources, audio-visual materials, Internet sites) that present a diverse range of perspectives on Canadian history and culture;

  • organize research findings, using a variety of methods and forms (e.g., note taking; graphs and charts, maps and diagrams).

Interpretation and Analysis
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an ability to distinguish bias, prejudice, stereotyping, or a lack of substantiation in statements, arguments, and opinions;

  • compare key interpretations of Canadian history (e.g., as reflected in the “two founding nations” thesis or the notion of Canada as a land of immigrants);

  • explain relationships and connections in the data studied (e.g., chronological ties, cause and effect, similarities and differences);

  • draw conclusions based on the effective evaluation of sources, analysis of information, and awareness of diverse historical interpretations;

  • demonstrate an ability to develop a cogent thesis substantiated by effective research.

Communication
By the end of this course, students will:

  • communicate effectively, using a variety of styles and forms (e.g., essays, debates, role playing, group presentations);

  • use an accepted form of academic documentation effectively and correctly (e.g., footnotes, endnotes, or author-date citations; bibliographies or reference lists; appendices), and avoid plagiarism;

  • express ideas, opinions, and conclusions clearly, articulately, and in a manner that respects the opinions of others.

Creativity, Collaboration, and Independent Study
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an ability to think creatively in reaching conclusions about both assigned questions and issues and those conceived independently;

  • use a variety of time-management strategies effectively;

  • demonstrate an ability to work independently and collaboratively and to seek and respect the opinions of others;

Expectations for World History: The West and the World
(Grade 12, University Preparation)
Communities: Local, National, and Global

Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the nature of the interaction among diverse peoples since the sixteenth century;

Specific Expectations
The Nature of the Interaction Among Communities
By the end of this course, students will:

  • analyse the impact of Western colonization on both the colonizer and the colonized (e.g., enrichment and impoverishment; introduction of new foods, materials, products, and ideas; destruction of cultures through disease and policy; revival of commitment to indigenous cultural identities);

Expectations for World History: The West and the World
(Grade 12, College Preparation)
Communities: Local, National, and Global

Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe key elements of various types of interactions that have occurred among diverse peoples and cultures since the sixteenth century;

Specific Expectations
The Nature of Interaction Among Communities
By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe key aspects of the impact of Western colonization on both the colonizer and the colonized (e.g., enrichment and impoverishment; introduction of new foods, materials, products, and ideas; destruction of cultures through disease and policy; revival of commitment to indigenous cultural identities);


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