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Aboriginal Treaties

Ontario Curriculum Expectations

Grade 9 Geography of Canada (Academic)
Grade 9 Geography of Canada (Applied)
Grade 10 Aboriginal Peoples in Canada
Grade 11 Current Aboriginal Issues in Canada
Grade 11 Understanding Canadian Law (University Prep)
Grade 12 Aboriginal Governance: Emerging Directions


Expectations for Geography of Canada
Grade 9, Academic
Space and Systems

Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of spatial organization components (e.g., place, location, region, pattern)

  • describe selected Canadian ecozones and identify the processes that shape them;

  • identify and analyse patterns of spatial organization, including land use, population distribution, and ecozones

  • demonstrate an understanding of the regional diversity of Canada's natural systems (e.g., natural vegetation, climate zones) and human systems (e.g., transportation links, urban hierarchies)

  • analyse factors that affect natural and human systems in Canada, using local and regional examples

Specific Expectations
Understanding Concepts
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of natural systems (e.g., climate, landforms, soils, natural vegetation, wildlife)

  • demonstrate an understanding of how natural and human systems interact within ecozones

Developing and Practicing Skills
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • identify and explain the regional distribution patterns of various peoples across Canada (e.g., Aboriginal peoples, francophones, immigrant groups);

  • analyse the location pattern of recent Native land claims in Canada

Human-Environment Interactions
Overall Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe Canada's renewable and non-renewable resource bases, and explain their relationship to the Canadian economy

Specific Expectations
Understanding Concepts
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • identify the regional distribution of Canada's energy sources and describe the relative importance of each source

  • demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which the traditional ecological knowledge of Aboriginal peoples influences how they interact with their environments, including their concepts of place, wilderness, and boundaries

Developing and Practicing Skills
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • develop and test criteria to determine the value of natural resources, including agricultural lands and wilderness

Methods of Geographic Inquiry
Overall Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an ability to collect, organize, and synthesize information from a variety of sources (e.g., atlases, photographs, hypermedia) to identify the characteristics of Canada's geography

  • select and use appropriate methods and organizers to analyse the economic, social, and natural factors that contribute to the characteristics of selected regions and systems in Canada

  • select and use appropriate methods and technology to communicate the results of geographic inquiries, and present a variety of viewpoints on issues affecting Canadians

Specific Expectations
Understanding Concepts
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the methods used to collect, organize, manipulate, and interpret geographic data

Developing and Practicing Skills
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • use geographic terms correctly in written and oral communication (e.g., location, place, region, pattern, urban, suburban, rural, wilderness)

  • develop and use appropriate questions to define a topic, problem, or issue, and use these questions to focus a geographic inquiry

  • locate and use effectively geographic material from primary sources (e.g., field research, surveys, interviews) and secondary sources (e.g., mainstream and alternative media, CD-ROMs, Internet) to research a geographic issue

  • demonstrate an ability to distinguish among opinion, argument, and fact in research sources

  • describe biases in information and identify what types of information are relevant to particular inquiries

  • decide whether or not the questions they have used for a geographic inquiry have been answered or the problems addressed

  • select and use appropriate methods for displaying geographic data

  • collect (e.g., through observation, surveying, interviewing) and synthesize information about the local bioregion

  • select and use appropriate technology (e.g., computer-generated maps, graphs, air photos, digital maps) to present geographic information

  • create and use effectively photographs, charts, graphs, models, and diagrams

  • use different types of maps (e.g., road, topographical, thematic) to interpret geographic relationships, including changes over time in a specific location

  • use cartographic conventions correctly when constructing maps (e.g., scale, legend, direction)

Learning Through Application
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • determine whether or not a conclusion or solution arrived at during an inquiry can be transferred to another context (e.g., determine whether a local waste management solution would be appropriate for another community)

  • use geographic data to support conclusions and opinions

Expectations for Geography of Canada
Grade 9, Academic

Space and Systems
Overall Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate a knowledge of spatial organization components (e.g., place, location, region, pattern)

  • identify and evaluate patterns of spatial organization, including land use, population distribution, and ecozones

  • demonstrate an understanding of the regional diversity of Canada's natural systems (e.g., natural vegetation, climate zones) and human systems (e.g., transportation links, urban hierarchies)

  • analyse factors that affect natural and human systems in Canada, using local and regional examples

Specific Expectations
Understanding Concepts
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of natural systems (e.g., climate, landforms, soils, natural vegetation, wildlife)

  • demonstrate an understanding of how natural and human systems interact within ecozones

Developing and Practicing Skills
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • identify and explain the regional distribution patterns of Aboriginal peoples across Canada (i.e., determine where various peoples are located and why they settled there)

Human-Environment Interactions
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • analyse ways in which Canadians use resources in Canada.

Specific Expectations
Understanding Concepts
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of how natural systems (e.g., climate, soils, landforms, wildlife) influence cultural and economic activities (e.g., recreation, transportation, employment opportunities)

Methods of Geographic Inquiry
Overall Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

  • collect, organize, and synthesize information about the characteristics of Canada's geography from a variety of sources (e.g., atlases, photographs, hypermedia)

  • select and use appropriate geographic methods and organizers to analyse the economic, social, and natural characteristics of selected regions in Canada

  • communicate the results of geographic inquiries using appropriate methods and technologies, and present viewpoints on issues affecting Canadians

Specific Expectations
Understanding Concepts
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the methods used to collect, organize, manipulate, and interpret geographic data

Developing and Practicing Skills
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • demonstrate a knowledge of geographic terms (e.g., location, place, region, pattern, urban, suburban, rural, wilderness)

  • develop appropriate questions to define a topic, problem, or issue

  • use geographic material from primary sources (e.g., field research, surveys, interviews) and secondary sources (e.g., mainstream and alternative media, CD-ROMs, Internet) effectively and appropriately when researching a geographic issue

  • demonstrate an ability to distinguish among opinion, argument, and fact in research sources

  • describe biases in information and identify what types of information are relevant to particular inquiries

  • determine whether or not the questions used for a geographic inquiry have been answered or the problems addressed

  • provide evidence to support conclusions and opinions

  • select and use appropriate methods for displaying geographic data

  • summarize information about the local bioregion (e.g., through observation, surveying, interviewing)

  • use appropriate technology (e.g., computer maps, graphs, air photos) to present geographic information

  • use different types of maps (e.g., road, topographic, thematic) effectively to interpret geographic relationships

  • use cartographic conventions correctly when constructing maps (e.g., scale, legend, direction)

Learning Through Application
By the end of Grade 9, students will:

  • determine whether or not a conclusion or solution arrived at during an inquiry can be transferred to other situations

Expectations for Aboriginal Peoples in Canada
Grade 10, Open
Relationships
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate understanding that different interpretations exist regarding relationships between Aboriginal peoples and the Crown

Specific Expectations
Aboriginal and Canadian Relations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe the efforts of the Canadian government to redefine its relationship with Aboriginal peoples (e.g., Indian Act, 1951; Choosing a Path, 1968; Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969; Bill C-31, 1985; Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1997; Statement of Reconciliation, 1998)

Sovereignty
Overall Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

  • identify historic and contemporary events affecting the self-determination of Aboriginal peoples

Methods of Historical Inquiry
Overall Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

  • research and explain historical topics and issues related to Aboriginal peoples

  • research and describe relevant information about Native studies using a variety of sources of information

  • demonstrate understanding of how to analyse and evaluate information when conducting research on a historical topic or issue

  • demonstrate the ability to apply insights gained in Native studies to other situations and communicate the results of research in oral and written presentations

Expectations for Current Aboriginal Issues in Canada
(Grade 11, University/College Preparation)
Relationships
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe the historical basis for the contemporary relationship between Aboriginal peoples and Canadian society

  • demonstrate an understanding of Aboriginal peoples' strong relationship to the land

Specific Expectations
Aboriginal and Canadian Relations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the interactions between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in the past (e.g., in terms of the role and function of the Indian Act) and how these interactions will influence future relationships

  • assess the degree to which the needs of Aboriginal peoples are being addressed by Canadian laws and the justice system (e.g., by the use of sentencing circles, by circuit court judges)

  • identify current land-use issues that involve Aboriginal peoples, non-Aboriginal society, and Canadian governments (e.g., issues relating to mining and logging)

Sovereignty
Overall Expectations

By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe the historical relationships between Aboriginal peoples and the Canadian government, as reflected in specific treaties and agreements and the intent behind them

Specific Expectations
Aboriginal and Canadian Relations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding that in making treaties, both Aboriginal peoples and the Canadian government recognized and affirmed each other's authority to enter into and make binding commitments in treaties (e.g., "numbered treaties" 1 to 11)

Renewal and Reconciliation
By the end of this course, students will:

  • identify the ways in which Aboriginal peoples and other Canadians are attempting to resolve disputes over the past treatment of Aboriginal peoples (e.g., in the ongoing dialogue regarding residential schools, through negotiations about land title);

Expectations for Understanding Canadian Law
(Grade 11, University/College Preparation)
Rights and Freedoms
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • identify historical and contemporary barriers to the equal enjoyment of human rights in Canada and evaluate their effects

Specific Expectations
Barriers to Human Rights
By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe historical and contemporary situations in which rights in Canada have been denied (e.g., rights of Japanese in the Second World War, Aboriginal rights to land, women's rights, rights of physically or mentally challenged persons)

Expectations for Aboriginal Governance: Emerging Directions
Grade 12, University/College Preparation
Relationships
Overall Expectations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the historical context that underlies current relationships between Aboriginal peoples and the government of Canada

  • describe the changing nature of the legal and political relationships between Aboriginal peoples and the government of Canada

Specific Expectations
Aboriginal World View
By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe ways in which Aboriginal peoples define nation-to-nation relationships with the government of Canada (e.g., any of the "numbered treaties")

Aboriginal and Canadian Relations
By the end of this course, students will:

  • describe ways in which history influences the current relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the government of Canada (e.g., Royal Proclamation of 1763, the Jay Treaty of 1794, pre-Confederation treaties, the eleven "numbered treaties" from 1871 to 1921);

  • demonstrate an understanding of the legal and political relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the British Crown (e.g., the Covenant Chain, fiduciary obligation based on the Indian Act, the Niagara Treaty)
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