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Aboriginal Treaties

Alberta Curriculum Objectives

Grade 10 Aboriginal Studies
Grade 10 Social Studies
Grade 11 Aboriginal Studies
Grade 12 Aboriginal Studies


Grade 10 (Aboriginal Studies 10)

THEME I: ORIGIN AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the political and economic organization of Aboriginal peoples.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
4. recognize and demonstrate an understanding that Aboriginal peoples moved from place to place according to well-defined patterns:

  • compare and contrast the main geographical regions of Canada, and examine how development of different Aboriginal cultures was influenced by various factors

  • research how the geographical regions influenced Aboriginal culture by examining the following:

    • behaviours/restrictions influenced by geographical factors

    • harmony with land, clans, families

    • spiritual forces in nature/interconnectedness

    • sharing of resources

    • plants and animals

THEME III: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ORGANI ZATION
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the political and economic organization of Aboriginal peoples.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
5. demonstrate an understanding of the current issues being addressed by Aboriginal political and economic organizations:

  • describe and analyze Aboriginal political and economic issues, including:

    • poverty

    • economic instability

  • appreciate how leaders are striving to strengthen Aboriginal peoples economically and politically

Grade 10 (Social Studies 10)

THEME II: REGIONALISM
Students will be expected to understand that:
a. Canada is composed of geographic regions with diverse political, economic and cultural interests.

Grade 11 (Aboriginal Studies 20)

THEME I: THE MÉTIS: CONFLICT AND CULTURAL CHANGE
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the Métis roles in the settlement of Western Canada.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
2. appreciate that conflict can arise among cultures because of differing political, economic and social perceptions and practices:

  • research and evaluate conflicts and cooperation between the Government of Canada and the emerging Métis Nation with respect to:
    • characteristics of the lives of Métis and First Nations people

    • the impact of the disappearance of the buffalo and decline of the fur trade

3. demonstrate an understanding of Métis history in Manitoba and Saskatchewan:

  • discuss the intentions and impact of the Canadian government's efforts to build a strong and unified nation

THEME II: TREATIES AND CULTURAL CHANGE
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of treaty relationships between First Nations people and the Government of Canada.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
1. demonstrate an understanding that First Nations people perceived treaties as recognized sovereign agreements:

  • analyze how Britain recognized First Nations sovereignty:

    • discuss unique relationships among community, land and leadership based on mutual support and consensus

    • discuss how First Nations community needs were met by examining their cultural values, laws and regulations, decision making, nation/community support, discipline and lawbreakers

    • describe similarities and differences among clans, bands and families in the areas of leadership, cooperative efforts, governance, consensus, consultation, administration, law, principles of sovereignty
  • research the intent of treaties:

    • describe how First Nations people developed coexisting relationships through contact resulting from trading, making treaties, making alliances, sharing territories

    • describe how First Nations established crown land to be protected and held in trust

2. demonstrate an understanding that First Nations people based treaty agreements on the principle of consensus based on traditional beliefs:

  • identify, locate and discuss treaties that were of peace and friendship

  • appreciate First Nations as seeking solutions that have spiritual, social and environmental integrity

3. demonstrate an understanding of how some treaties were a mechanism whereby the Canadian government received title to ceded lands and in return First Nations retained areas of reserved land with certain rights:

  • identify, locate and discuss land-based treaties

    • research and discuss treaties signed on the prairies:

    • reasons for treaties by First Nations and the Canadian government

    • reasons why First Nations accepted the treaties
  • areas of Treaty 6, 7 and 8 and the Nations involved

  • discuss the roles of people who were influential in treaty making; e.g., Jerry Potts, Big Bear, William Robinson, Red Crow, Poundmaker, James McLeod, George McDougall, Crowfoot

  • appreciate, respect and compare the viewpoints of First Nations people, Métis people and the federal government toward treaties

5. demonstrate an understanding that there were many policies, acts and treaties passed by the federal government that had an impact on First Nations people and their way of life:

  • research and evaluate the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Indian Act of 1876, as it relates to:

    • protectionism, control and assimilation

    • the Indian Act amendments concerning Indian ceremonies

THEME III: LEGISLATION, POLICIES AND CULTURAL CHANGE
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of government policies, legislation and practices on Aboriginal cultures and peoples.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
5. research, analyze and evaluate the impact of federal government policies, legislation and practices on the self-determination and quality of life of Aboriginal peoples; e.g., any two of the following: health, education, justice, economics, socio-cultural.

Grade 12 (Aboriginal Studies 30)

THEME II: ABORIGINAL LAND CLAIMS
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of Aboriginal land rights, entitlements and current land claim negotiations with the Government of Canada.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
1. demonstrate an understanding that Aboriginal peoples are identified by their distinctive cultural practices and products associated with the historically occupied land/sea:

  • examine and discuss ancestral trails, hunting territories, trading territories, geography and technology of First Nations and Métis people

3. demonstrate an understanding of how land can be viewed as a prerequisite for self-determination:

  • appreciate how Aboriginal leaders and nations have made progress toward recognition of Aboriginal inherent rights to land and self-reliance as reinforced in the constitution

  • demonstrate an appreciation that the land has economic, cultural, social, educational, political and spiritual value

    • Royal Proclamation, 1763

    • the Manitoba Act, 1870

    • the Indian Act, 1876

4. demonstrate an understanding of how rights are considered to be a critical issue facing First Nations people and non land-based Métis:

  • evaluate land claims from the following First Nations points of view:

    • economic value

    • political value

5. demonstrate an understanding of why many First Nations people have long expressed concern that land entitlements under the treaties were not met by the federal and provincial governments:

  • appreciate that at the signing of the treaties, First Nations and government leaders bargained in good faith

  • analyze land issues, and identify the reasons for the shortage of land for First Nations; e.g., surrender of Indian lands, lands that were never granted, increase in population

  • research and identify the terms of the Manitoba Act, 1870, in terms of Métis land rights

6. demonstrate an understanding that land claims are those claims where land has never been ceded through treaties:

  • analyze and discuss some of the reasons why Canada has not settled comprehensive land claims

  • research and report on the history of land claims, noting the following:

    • the Nisga'a First Nations petition to His Majesty's Privy Council, 1913

    • the Indian Act

    • the Office of Native Land Claims, 1974

    • the In All Fairness: A Native Claims Policy, 1981

    • the Task Force to Review Comprehensive Claims Policy headed by Murray Coolican, 1985

7. demonstrate an awareness and respect for those First Nations attempting to reclaim land that had not been ceded:

  • examine contemporary land claims in other parts of Canada; e.g., British Columbia-the Nisga'a land claim settlement of 1998

8. demonstrate an awareness that several comprehensive land claims have been resolved throughout Canada:

  • research and report on the major land claims in Canada:

    • the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, 1975

    • the Agreement-in-principle with the Dene and Métis of Treaty 11 in the Northwest Territories

    • the Agreement-in-principle with the Council of Yukon Indians

    • British Columbia land claims
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