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Aboriginal Treaties

Alberta Curriculum Objectives

Grade 10 Aboriginal Studies
Grade 12 Aboriginal Studies
Grade 10 Aboriginal Studies


Grade 10 (Aboriginal Studies 10)

THEME III: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ORGANI ZATION
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the political and economic organization of Aboriginal peoples.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
5. demonstrate an understanding of the current issues being addressed by Aboriginal political and economic organizations:

  • describe and analyze Aboriginal political and economic issues, including:

  • evaluate and report on how legislation enacted by the British government demonstrated the perspective of that government by reviewing relevant excerpts from the following acts, and summarizing their purpose and effects on Aboriginal peoples:

    • poverty

    • economic instability

Grade 11 (Aboriginal Studies 20)

THEME I: THE MÉTIS: CONFLICT AND CULTURAL CHANGE
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the Métis roles in the settlement of Western Canada.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
2. appreciate that conflict can arise among cultures because of differing political, economic and social perceptions and practices:

  • research and evaluate conflicts and cooperation between the Government of Canada and the emerging Métis Nation with respect to:
    • significance of the survey of the Red River settlement and the role of surveyors

    • characteristics of the lives of Métis and First Nations people

    • the impact of the disappearance of the buffalo and decline of the fur trade

    • the impact of "scrip" on Métis people

3. demonstrate an understanding of Métis history in Manitoba and Saskatchewan:

  • discuss the intentions and impact of the Canadian government's efforts to build a strong and unified nation

  • identify and evaluate the reasons for the conflict in Manitoba surrounding the Manitoba Act of 1870

  • discuss the role of First Nations people in the Riel Resistance

  • evaluate the after-effects of the Riel Resistance on the lives of Métis people relative to changes in lifestyles

THEME II: TREATIES AND CULTURAL CHANGE
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of treaty relationships between First Nations people and the Government of Canada.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
1. demonstrate an understanding that First Nations people perceived treaties as recognized sovereign agreements:

  • analyze how Britain recognized First Nations sovereignty:

    • discuss unique relationships among community, land and leadership based on mutual support and consensus

    • discuss how First Nations community needs were met by examining their cultural values, laws and regulations, decision making, nation/community support, discipline and lawbreakers

    • describe similarities and differences among clans, bands and families in the areas of leadership, cooperative efforts, governance, consensus, consultation, administration, law, principles of sovereignty
  • research the intent of treaties:

    • describe how First Nations people developed coexisting relationships through contact resulting from trading, making treaties, making alliances, sharing territories

    • describe how First Nations established crown land to be protected and held in trust

3. demonstrate an understanding of how some treaties were a mechanism whereby the Canadian government received title to ceded lands and in return First Nations retained areas of reserved land with certain rights:

  • identify, locate and discuss land-based treaties

    • research and discuss treaties signed on the prairies:

    • reasons for treaties by First Nations and the Canadian government

    • reasons why First Nations accepted the treaties
  • areas of Treaty 6, 7 and 8 and the Nations involved

  • discuss the roles of people who were influential in treaty making; e.g., Jerry Potts, Big Bear, William Robinson, Red Crow, Poundmaker, James McLeod, George McDougall, Crowfoot

  • appreciate, respect and compare the viewpoints of First Nations people, Métis people and the federal government toward treaties

5. demonstrate an understanding that there were many policies, acts and treaties passed by the federal government that had an impact on First Nations people and their way of life:

  • research and evaluate the Royal Proclamation of 1763 and the Indian Act of 1876, as it relates to:

    • protectionism, control and assimilation

    • the Indian Act amendments concerning Indian ceremonies

THEME III: LEGISLATION, POLICIES AND CULTURAL CHANGE
GENERAL OUTCOME

Students will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of government policies, legislation and practices on Aboriginal cultures and peoples.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
1. demonstrate an understanding of the nature and impact of the legislation and policies of the French and British governments on Aboriginal peoples:

  • identify the differences between French and British government policies affecting Aboriginal peoples, and evaluate the impact of those policies on Aboriginal peoples

  • evaluate and report on how legislation enacted by the British government demonstrated the perspective of that government by reviewing relevant excerpts from the following acts, and summarizing their purpose and effects on Aboriginal peoples:

    • Royal Proclamation, 1763

    • Gradual Civilization Act, 1857

    • British North America Act, 1867

    • Indian Enfranchisement Act, 1867

    • Indian Act, 1876

2. demonstrate an understanding of the impact of federal government legislation and policies on Aboriginal peoples:

  • analyze the process and effects of instituting the reserve system

  • evaluate the significance of the Royal Proclamation, 1763

5. research, analyze and evaluate the impact of federal government policies, legislation and practices on the self-determination and quality of life of Aboriginal peoples; e.g., any two of the following: health, education, justice, economics, socio-cultural.

THEME IV: SCHOOLING AND CULTURAL CHANGE
GENERAL OUTCOME

Students will demonstrate an understanding of how federal government policies affected the socialization process of traditional Aboriginal education.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
3. demonstrate an understanding that after the signing of the treaties, a policy of assimilation was undertaken by the federal government in the schooling of Aboriginal children:

  • define "assimilation"

  • evaluate the effects assimilation had on Aboriginal children

  • analyze the impact of federal policies on the education of Aboriginal peoples

2. demonstrate an understanding of the impact of federal government legislation and policies on Aboriginal peoples:

  • analyze the process and effects of instituting the reserve system

  • evaluate the significance of the Royal Proclamation, 1763

5. research, analyze and evaluate the impact of federal government policies, legislation and practices on the self-determination and quality of life of Aboriginal peoples; e.g., any two of the following: health, education, justice, economics, socio-cultural.

Grade 12 (Aboriginal Studies 30)

THEME I: ABORIGINAL RIGHTS AND SELF-GOVERNMENT
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding that Canadian Aboriginal peoples have an inherent right to self-government and self-determination.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
2. demonstrate an understanding of how First Nations and Métis land rights are based on differing premises:

  • compare and contrast the concept of land ownership between European and Aboriginal peoples

3. demonstrate an understanding of the Constitution Act, 1982, which guaranteed and affirmed Aboriginal rights and freedoms:

  • research and evaluate the terms of the Constitution Act, 1982 relative to Aboriginal rights and freedoms

  • examine the Constitution Act, 1982 in relation to the rights and freedoms of:

    • Royal Proclamation, 1763

    • the Manitoba Act, 1870

    • the Indian Act, 1876

4. demonstrate an understanding that many Aboriginal peoples have a right to self-government and self-determination:

  • examine and appreciate that traditional Aboriginal governments existed before the arrival of the Europeans and have been guaranteed through treaty agreements

  • research terms of the treaties with respect to self-government; e.g., Treaty No. 6, Treaty No. 7, Treaty No. 8, and so on

5. demonstrate an understanding that Aboriginal communities are evolving into independent governing bodies:

  • examine and compare the administration and governance of reserves, past and present:

    • Council of Elders

    • selecting a chief and council

    • powers of chief and council

    • role of the Indian agent

    • role of the federal government

  • examine the Indian Act, 1876 and analyze the changes in freedoms in reference to individual, economic, social and educational rights

6. demonstrate an understanding of how some Aboriginal and Métis Nation leaders are directing their resources into establishing self-government in their communities:

  • discuss the Indian Act, 1876 as it pertains to self-government

THEME II: ABORIGINAL LAND CLAIMS
GENERAL OUTCOME
Students will demonstrate an understanding of Aboriginal land rights, entitlements and current land claim negotiations with the Government of Canada.

SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
Students will:
5. demonstrate an understanding of why many First Nations people have long expressed concern that land entitlements under the treaties were not met by the federal and provincial governments:

  • appreciate that at the signing of the treaties, First Nations and government leaders bargained in good faith

  • analyze land issues, and identify the reasons for the shortage of land for First Nations; e.g., surrender of Indian lands, lands that were never granted, increase in population

  • research and identify the terms of the Manitoba Act, 1870, in terms of Métis land rights

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