Home PageSite MapSite IndexHow to Use This SiteGlossaryContact Us Acknowledgements Image
Canada in the Making
Canada in the MakingTeachers' Resources
Primary Sources
Teachers' Resources
Biographies & Reference
Specific Events & Topics
Maps & Images
Français
Image
Image
Themes:
Constitutional History
Image
Aboriginals: Treaties & Relations
Image
Pionniers et Immigrants
Image
Image

PDF Version | Word Version | Rich Text Format | Text Format

A Picture is Worth…

An activity for use with the Pioneers and Immigrants section
of the Canada in the Making site

Teacher Guide

Primary sources are the most authentic sources historians can use. By providing evidence, unfiltered by other historians, they allow researchers to make decisions and draw conclusions about what happened in the past. These sources include pictures. This activity will allow students to use images from the Library and Archives of Canada as well as the Pioneers and Settlement portion of the Canada in the Making Web site to describe life on the frontier.

Subject/Grade Level
Social Studies/History
Ages 12 and up

Overview
This is an activity requiring students to examine photographs and documentary art from different periods and places in Canada’s past. Students may work together or alone to extract information from these pictures and make conclusions about the way people lived in the past.

Research for this essay should require should take one to two hour-long sessions online. The work will require two hour-long sessions. Note that the sources used in ECO can be printed from the browser and then photocopied.

Outcomes (WCP, APEF); Expectations (ON); Objectives (QC)
Table of Curricular Relevance by Course and Province
British Columbia and Yukon Territory
Manitoba
Ontario
Quebec
Saskatchewan
APEF
WCP

Materials/Resources Required

  • Computers with Internet access.

  • Photos and historical art depicting settlement in what is now Canada.

  • These are provided through links on the Student Work Sheet.

  • Student Work Sheet

  • Suggested Assessment Criteria

  • Extension Work Sheet

Links

Previous Knowledge
Students will need:

  • An understanding of Web navigation symbols, tools and terminology, particularly the tools used in ECO

  • Familiarity with research and essay writing skills

  • Some knowledge of the history of Canada, in particular that Canada was settled by waves of immigration and that these immigrants came to a land that was already occupied by Aboriginal peoples.

Lesson Opener

Bring in a photo that depicts a scene, from either a newspaper or magazine. Discuss all the things that can be observed from the picture: people, clothing, tools, buildings, animals, weather, climate, etc.

Procedure

Step 1
Introduce students to the ECO Canada In the Making Web site. Have students review the page “Using Primary Sources in Your Work”.
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/guide/essay_e.html

Step 2
Hand out Student Work Sheets. Read the assignment and discuss. Students can work individually or in groups, or a combination. It may be noticed that students working in groups are able to extract more information that students working alone. Students may work with one, some or all the images.

Step 3
Students should make notes about all their observations, using the Student Work Sheet as a guide to their examination.

Step 4
The group or class could come together to share what they have learned from the images.

Step 5
Students could conduct more research to refine their conclusions.

Step 6
Students could make a presentation to the class.

Summary

Discuss: What do the pictures seem to have in common? What do they have that is different? Are there any conclusions that we can make about life as a pioneer?

Evaluation

See the Suggested Assessment Criteria.

Homework/Extension

Students could research the period around one of the images. See the Extension Work Sheet for more details.

For curriculum expectations/outcomes/objectives relevant to the extension, go to:
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/ltable10_e.html



A Picture is Worth…

An activity for use with the Pioneers and Settlement portion
of the Canada in the Making site

Student Work Sheet

Primary sources are the most authentic sources historians can use. By providing evidence, unfiltered by other historians, they allow researchers to make decisions and draw conclusions about what happened in the past. These sources include pictures. This activity will allow you to use images from the Library and Archives of Canada as well as the Pioneers and Settlement portion of the Canada in the Making Web site to describe life on the frontier.

Notes on Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary sources

Primary sources represent the most authentic resources that historians can draw upon. The documents that you will be using below may be digitized, but are still considered primary sources. But they are not without their problems: bias and perspective can change the way an author, artist, or even photographer depicts events.

It is the job of the historian to review many primary sources with different perspectives whenever possible. Determination what the truth is can be a tricky business, and it should be no surprise that different historians can come to different conclusions. Ultimately, what the historian presents must be supported by evidence

Review the “Using Primary Sources in Your Work” page for more information.
URL: http://www.canadian.org/citm/guide/essay_e.html

Secondary sources

Secondary sources are works that interpret or analyze an historical event or phenomenon. Generally the author is at least one step removed from the event. Although not as authentic as primary sources, secondary sources are still valuable. For example, they can:

  • Provide a good starting place for an investigation.

  • Show what primary sources the author used.

  • Suggest new avenues for investigation.

  • Show the historical perspective of different periods after the events.


The Images

New Homestead
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/a017378_e.html

Colonists on the Red River in North America (Manitoba)
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c001937_e.html

Encampment of the Loyalists at Johnstown (Cornwall)
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c002001_e.html

Ruthenian Settlers
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c005131_e.html

A Settler's Home near Carberry, Assiniboia District (Manitoba)
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c011030_e.html

Habitants
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c011224_e.html

Barr colonist camp, Saskatoon
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c014974_e.html

Construction of a Chinese Camp
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c016715_e.html

Settlers holding a building bee for Teodor Chruszcz
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c024880_e.html

Indian settlement at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, with the canal in the background (Ontario)
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c040328_e.html

Beresina, N.W.T. (Saskatchewan)
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c047331_e.html

Colonization, Province of Quebec
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/education/lesson10/images/c057553_e.html

The Questions

When examining the images, you will notice that the archival records contain some baseline information. Make note of:

  • When the image was created

  • Who created the image

  • Where it was created

  • What kind of image it is (painting, photograph, etc.)

  • Any other details in the record.

Describe all the objects, people and animals that you see in the image. Create a table something like this:

Objects

Animals

People

Activities

Tools
Equipment
Recreation/ entertainment
Utensils
Weapons
Etc.

Pets
Food animals
Work animals

For each person, describe:
Physical appearance in general (skin and hair colour, height, weight, etc.
Apparent age (e.g., child, baby, elderly)
Clothing
Apparent health
Mood
Etc.

Recreation
Work

 

Now try to make some judgments. Answer the following:

  • How did these people make a living? That is, what did they do to ensure they had enough to eat and a place to live?

  • Why do you think they are there? Explain.

  • Are the people rich or poor? Why do you think this? Give evidence.

  • Do you think this is a posed picture or a natural picture? Why?

  • What would some of the challenges be in living in such an environment? Explain.

  • What would be some of the rewards of living in such an environment? Explain.

Try to make two generalizations about life in that time and place.

Discuss with your group or your class. Conduct more exploration and change any of your conclusions if you think it is appropriate.

Present your findings to the class as a poster or in another format approved by your teacher.

Possible Sources of Information Online for Further Study

Note: It is important to choose online sources that are produced by reputable institutions or individuals. Such information is more likely to give you a balanced, neutral view and be prepared or reviewed by experts.

Primary sources are available on the Pioneers and Immigrants site at:
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers_e.html

General
Canada in the Making
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/
Early Canadiana Online
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/ECO
The Canadian Encyclopedia
URL: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com
The Library and Archives of Canada: Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
URL: http://www.biographi.ca/
The Library and Archives of Canada: The Canadian West
URL: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/05/0529/052910/ 05291008_e.html

Aboriginal Settlement
Aboriginal settlement
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers2_e.html
Pathfinders and Passageways: The Exploration of Canada (Library and Archives of Canada)
URL: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/explorers/index-e.html

Inuit Migration in the Arctic
Pathfinders and Passageways: The Exploration of Canada (Library and Archives of Canada)
URL: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/explorers/h24-1110-e.html
North: Landscape of the Imagination (Library and Archives of Canada)
URL: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/north/index-e.html

The Norse (Viking) settlers
Pathfinders and Passageways: The Exploration of Canada (Library and Archives of Canada)
URL: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/explorers/h24-1110-e.html
L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada (Parks Canada)
URL: http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/natcul/saga_e.asp
Inuit and Norsemen in Arctic Canada (Canadian Museum of Civilization)
URL: http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/archeo/oracles/norse/40.htm

France Builds an Empire in New France
Acadia: The First French Settlement
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers2_e.html
New France
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers3_e.html
New France: New Horizons – On French Soil in America (Library and Archives of Canada)
URL: http://www.archivescanadafrance.org/english/accueil_en.html
Daily Life:
URL: http://www.champlain2004.org/html/life.html

Loyalists Flee the United States
Loyalists, the First Refugees
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers4_e.html
Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People (Canada’s Digital Collections)
URL: http://collections.ic.gc.ca/blackloyalists/wireframe.htm

British Immigration
Post-Loyalist Settlement I
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers6_e.html
Post-Loyalist Settlement II
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers7_e.html
Susanna Moodie and Catherine Parr Traill (Library and Archives of Canada)
URL: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/moodie-traill/index-e.html

Immigration to the West
Prairie Settlement: The First Major Wave
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers10_e.html
The Last Best West
URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/pioneers/pioneers11_e.html
The Canadian West (Library and Archives of Canada)
URL: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/05/0529_e.html

Special Migrations
Asian Immigration
(URL: http://www.canadiana.org/citm/specifique/asian_e.html)
1885 Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration
Chinese Immigration Act, 1885
Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People (Canada’s Digital Collections)
URL: http://collections.ic.gc.ca/blackloyalists/wireframe.htm

A Picture is Worth…
Suggested Rubric

Program Area: Social Studies, History, Canadian Studies
Criterion: Understanding Concepts
Attainment Descriptors:
Information gathered demonstrates an understanding of the conditions of life, challenges and rewards of pioneer life.

Program Area: Social Studies, History, Canadian Studies
Criterion: Research Methods
Attainment Descriptor:
Locates, gathers and organizes research materials from the Canada in the Making Web site and other sources.
Arguments expressed in the presentation are supported by clearly communicated evidence from the Canada in the Making Web site and other sources.

Program Area: Social Studies, History, Canadian Studies
Criterion: Analysis
Attainment Descriptor:
Draws conclusions based on the effective evaluation of sources and analysis of information.

Program Area: Language
Criterion: Oral and visual communication
Attainment Descriptor:
Expresses ideas, opinions, and conclusions clearly, articulately, and in a manner that respects the opinions of others.
Speaks clearly and uses appropriate variety in volume, rate, tone and pitch, pause, stress and emphasis, inflection, fluency.
Uses a variety of media and presentation methods in order to make the presentation engaging (e.g.: posters, images, audio, role playing, PowerPoint presentation).

Program Area: General
Criterion: Cooperative Group Work
Attainment Descriptor:
Demonstrates an ability to think creatively in reaching conclusions about both assigned questions and issues and those conceived independently.
Demonstrates an ability to work independently and collaboratively and to seek and respect the opinions of others.


A Picture is Worth…

Extension Work Sheet


Conduct research about the period of settlement and immigration that the image you have worked on depicts. Try to find answers to the following questions:

Who were the people moving during this period of immigration? Describe them briefly.

Why did they move? There may be religious, economic, political or other reasons.

What did the government in New France/Quebec/Canada do to encourage them to come and welcome them, if anything?

How were those already living in Canada treat new arrivals?

How did First nations, Inuit or Métis peoples or technology help them?

What was it like for them to live on the frontier? Describe the living conditions for the average settler. Consider:
What would they have done for work?
What tools would they have had?
What would they have eaten?
What would their houses have looked like?
What was the environment like? Consider geography, climate, wildlife, etc.
What would they have done for entertainment?
What would they have had for medical care?
etc.

How did this wave of settlement contribute to the development of Canada? Try to identify some characteristics of Canadian culture, politics, geography, etc., that remain from this period.

How did European settlement affect the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples? Consider: the introduction of technology, disease, loss of land and culture, etc.


Image
Image
  ImageTop of Page Image
Image Image
Image