Numbered Treaty Ten

Document Summary:
Chippewyan, Cree and other Aboriginal nations forever give up their land rights to the government of Canada for European settlement in current-day northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. In return for giving up these rights, they received:

  • 2.5 square kilometers of reserve land for each family of five or 600 square meters for each person.

  • $12 per person at the treaty signing and $5 each year afterward; chiefs get $32 and $15 each year. They also get a flag and a silver medal, plus a suit of clothing every three years. Headmen get $22 and $15 each year following, plus a bronze medal. They also get a suit of clothing every three years.

  • The right to hunt and fish on ceded land, except land used for forestry, mining, settlement or other purposes.

  • Unspecified amount of ammunition and fishing net twine, to be distributed as the government deems necessary.

  • A provision for childhood education.

  • A census to keep track of how many Aboriginals there were in each band, mainly for financial compensation purposes.

The government also agrees to furnish unspecific agricultural assistance via tools or livestock as necessary or advisable.

In return for the aforementioned items, the Aboriginals had to:

  • Promise they would keep the peace and maintain law and order.

  • Never possess any liquor on their reserves. (The introduction of alcohol in Aboriginal society had led to disorder in the past.)