Numbered Treaty Nine

Document Summary:
Ojibeway, Cree and other Aboriginal nations forever give up their land rights to the government of Canada for European settlement in current-day northern Ontario. In return for giving up these rights, they received:

  • 2.5 square kilometers of reserve land for each family of five or 600 square meters for each person.

  • $8 per person each year, plus an additional $4 annually for the family head; chiefs get $32 and an extra $8 payment. They also get a flag and a copy of the treaty.

  • The right to hunt and fish on ceded land, except land used for forestry, mining, settlement or other purposes.

  • $1 per family head for ammunition and fishing net twine.

  • Funds to hire teachers, construct school buildings, and buy educational equipment as the government of Canada sees fit.

  • A census to keep track of how many Aboriginals there were in each band, mainly for financial compensation purposes.

Farming assistance is not mentioned, unlike the other Numbered Treaties, presumably due to the geography of the land.

In return for the aforementioned items, the Aboriginals had to:

  • Promise they would keep the peace and maintain law and order.

  • Never possess any liquor on their reserves. (The introduction of alcohol in Aboriginal society had led to disorder in the past.)